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彩色马蹄莲的盆栽管理技术

[作者:樊慧  来源:新疆林业科学院  时间:2016-5-26  阅读:1073次][字体:字体颜色]
盆栽彩色马蹄莲作为当前国际流行的室内观赏花卉,既可观叶又可赏花,深受人们喜爱。由于我们西北地区常年从沿海城市引进大批盆花以供市场需求,本区市场有很大潜力,许多生产者开始引进种球种植,但由于种种原因,种植户普遍认为的栽培技术难度大、投入高、成品率低、种植彩色马蹄莲难以获益,针对这些问题,向大家推荐能够使彩色马蹄莲成功实现各个阶段生长发育的栽培管理技术和控制手段。
1.影响彩色马蹄莲盆栽质量的因素
1.1种球的质量
种球的好坏直接关系到成花的株型和花朵数量。用于生产的种球质量要求:①应使用组培苗生产的种球;②种球应有一定的大小,一般种球周长应在18cm以上,其大小与开花多少密切相关;③选用杂交技术培育的F1代品种,并通过组培繁育,种球繁育期不超过2a,中期活力强,病毒、病菌少,芽眼多,花多叶多,株型紧凑,适合盆栽;④种球上盆前的处理技术(包括低温处理、激素催花处理和防腐处理),高质量的种球经过综合处理才能用于盆花生产。                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                &nbs, p;                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
1.2种球的品种
彩色马蹄莲盆花品种株型紧凑,茎多花多,花朵稍小;切花品种株型高大,茎少花少;切花和盆花兼用品种介于两者之间。应根据当地的消费习惯和生产需要选择所需的品种。
1.3生产季节和环境
彩色马蹄莲属于球根花卉,喜冷凉气候,适宜彩色马蹄莲的生长季节是每年的2-5月以及从11月到来年的2月,用于五一和春节上市。7-10月由于气温较高,生产难度较大,在夜间温度较低的地区和有降温设施的温室可以生产。
2.盆栽彩色马蹄莲的栽培技术
2.1种植前处理
购买的种球一般都经过综合处理,剔出软腐病球以免病菌传播。栽植前放在透气性较好的托盘上晾晒几天,使碰伤的伤口愈合。
2.2种植时间安排
开花日期与上盆时期、种球大小及品种有关,温度较高且日照时间长可促进生长。根据品种的不同,开花所需的天数(从种植到开花)也有所不同。春季在温室栽培约为80-120d,秋季栽培约为60-80d。
2.3上 盆
2.3.1基质:马蹄莲生长的最好基质是拥有25%珍珠岩、PH值6-6.5(最佳孔积率为20%±5%左右)、排水良好的土壤,泥炭须用粗泥炭。基质的好坏会影响到病害的发生情况。可用进口的彩色马蹄莲栽培专用基质。
2.3.2栽植:球根栽植在花盆的中部,注意栽植深度,一般种球上需盖2-3cm厚的基质,圆的一面向下,芽朝上。
2.3.3花盆规格:作为指导意见栽植马蹄莲用高的盆以利于根系生长。比如种植12/14㎝用12㎝的花盆,16/20㎝用16㎝的花盆,24cm以上球根用20㎝的花盆。周长18cm以上的种球,建议使用15cm或17cm的花盆种植。种球越大,成花数越多。
2.4环境控制
马蹄莲应生长在非常清洁玻璃温室的凉爽环境中。
2.4.1通风:通风要好,平吹风,使室内空气流动起来,湿度可以略高,不宜过低,否则叶子宽度生长受影响,活力不足,芽数减少。注意白天温室中的相对湿度不能低于50-60%,最好维持在60-75%;夜间相对湿度应在75-85%,以防止欧文氏杆菌的感染。
2.4.2光照:为提高茎杆质量以及最佳的开花数量,适宜的光照强度为其基本要点,尤其在春季和秋季。盛夏须加30-50%的遮荫,以防止土壤温度升高。高光照利于矮化植株,减少激素用量。过度的遮光将使花的颜色消退并导致苗木的弱化,茎叶徒长。
2.4.3温度控制:在温室中,土壤的温度保持在15-18℃(越稳定越好)。各个阶段气温要一致,避免出现极端条件。不同阶段所需温度:营养生殖阶段(开花前生根和叶芽分化)白天温度24℃,夜间温度18℃。此阶段要使用激素处理。生殖生长阶段(从花芽分化到花朵转色)白天温度18℃,夜间温度10-13℃。彩色马蹄莲的球根和植株对霜冻都没有忍耐能力。
2.5浇水
上盆栽植后立即用喷壶浇水,用此法直到新叶展开。浇水时,如果底部基质干燥,应把水浇透;如果潮湿,浇水应适度。保持基质湿润,避免过干过湿,忽干忽湿会伤根、染病,注意浇水的原则是少量多次。在最初的生长阶段,使用滴灌将每周的浇水限制在几次,直到第一张叶片完全展开。此后适度浇水,用少量的水来保持植株干燥。最好在早上浇水,同时应注意检查土壤中水分和根部发育之间的关系。另外,水质要好,EC(可溶性盐含量)值要在1.5以下。
2.6施肥和生长调节剂的施用
额外地施一些液体肥料会使马蹄莲的茎和叶生长得更好,可使用低氮高钾的营养液配方。适量的施肥可降低欧文氏杆菌感染的危险。为了提高出花率,应在栽植三周前将彩色马蹄莲的球根在生长调节剂中浸泡15-30min。可使用100mg/L的赤霉素GA3 进行处理。配制好的生长调节剂溶液放置不能超过3d。浸泡后,如果球根不是马上种植,应使其在24h内干燥。
2.7病虫害防治
2.7.1病害:预防为主,疾病一旦爆发则极难控制。首先保证种球的质量。控制病害主要是指3种病害:丝核菌、欧文氏杆菌和腐霉菌。用1种药控制不了所有上述病害,几种药交叉使用。要严密监视欧文氏菌感染情况,欧文菌属病毒是马蹄莲主要的病害。这种病害在高温高湿的环境下发生。如出现欧文氏杆菌立即从温室中去除有病植株并销毁,以免病菌传播。保持低湿度和销毁病植株有助于控制这种疾病的蔓延。种植前对基质进行蒸汽消毒,使用甲基立枯磷和氟酰胺来处理基质,并使用杀菌剂(如克菌丹或多菌灵)对球根进行处理,保持空气流通可防止腐霉菌、丝核菌和青霉菌的发生。
2.7.2虫害:由于真菌蚊子和水蝇会传播细菌和疾病,因此要严加防范。蚜虫和蓟马在植株的整个生长过程中都会造成伤害,每隔7-10d可使用乙酰甲胺磷或溴氰菊酯喷洒1次以防病虫害的发生。
·上篇文章:阿月浑子栽培技术浅析
·下篇文章:库尔勒地区俄罗斯大果沙棘引种及丰产栽培技术
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